Abhang:Generally consists of four couplets, of which the second couplet contains the central theme of the poem.
Dhrupad: The couplet that contains the central theme of the abhang. While singing this is repeated in chorus after each couplet is sung.
Angadshah: 17th century Sufi mystic and contemporary of Tukaram. His lineage of disciples staying at Bhavani Peth in Pune, observe a fast every year in memory of the friendship between Tukaram and Angadshah. The day-long fast is observed with reverence during the death anniversary of Angadshah’s guru, Hazrat Lakhanshah, held on the 25th day of Dhul Hijja, the Islamic calendar. Angadshah was based in the Astanpur area (now Bhavani Peth) of Pune, where he ran an Asoorkhana (guesthouse).
After his visit to Dehu, Angadshah and Tukaram became very good friends. According to historian Sadanand More, head of the Tukaram chair at Pune University. “Angadshah Baba is a folk hero. The aura around him has been passed down the generations through folklore. Descendants of Angadshah fast on Tukaram Beej (the day Tukaram was last seen in 1650).”
Writer-poet Dilip Chitre, author of the popular book, Says Tuka, says: “Mystics like Angadshah enjoyed a common chord with warkari mystics of their time. They preferred to concentrate on the spiritual aspects of religion as understood by common people. ”
Jnanadev: Jnanadev's writings became the fountainhead from which poets - Namdev, Janabai, Chokamela, Savata Mali, Eknath and Tukaram drew inspiration. Jnanadev broke away from tradition to become the first person to write commentary on Bhagawad-Geeta - Jnanadevi in Marathi and not Sanskrit, thereby opening the reservoir of knowledge to the multitude in their own mother tongue, which till then was for the privileged few. Jnanadev in the beginning of his commentary itself took cognizance of various religions present at that time and performed the great feat of bridging the gap between them.
Keertan: A performance where the keertankar (a lead singer and group leader), who could be of either gender, carrying a veena (stringed instrument) who leads the group with a series of abhangs. The group supports the keertankar in a chorus. After singing of each couplet the keertankar gives a discourse on it.
Palkhi: Narayan, the youngest son of Tukaram, started the tradition of carrying the padukas (footwear) of both Jnanadev and Tukaram in the same palkhi (palanquin) in the latter half of the 17th Century in Dehu near Pune. True to the pilgrimage's spirit of communal harmony, the Tukaram palkhi first stops at the mausoleum of Angadshah a Sufi mystic and contemporary of Tukaram, in Dehu.
Puranas: medieval compilations of myths concerning various deities of the Hindu pantheon; they are regarded as part of the scriptures.
Shivaji: The great Maratha King and founder of a nationalist tradition was contemporary of Tukaram. There is evidence to indicate that Tukaram was not just a devotional saint and mystic. Responding to the need of the times, he was equally adept at writing verses which bore the stamp of practical genius.
‘Paikiche Abhang’ is his collection of 11 long verses, expounding on the principal duties of the ‘paik’ or soldier. This is significant because Tukaram was a contemporary of Shivaji .It is no coincidence that some years after his famous verses, Shivaji made it a point to meet the poet saint. Each of the eleven verses gently guides the soldier to realise his responsibility towards his king. For instance, one ‘abhang’ invokes the soldiers that, in an emergency, they must serve as an impregnable wall to stave off the enemy assault, till their master reaches the safety of the fort. Another describes how once a ‘paik’ (foot soldier) becomes a ‘naik’ (an officer), his dedication and judgement must grow to match his new responsibility.
Santaji Teli Jagnade: a devoted companion of Tukaram; his notebooks contain the only contemporary copies of some of Tukaram's work.
Tukaram Beej: Tukaram disappeared on this day while performing keertan at Dehu. The day was Phalgun (eleventh month of the Hindu lunar calendar) vadya Beej (second day of the dark/waning moon). Legend has it that Tukaram's body simply disintegrated and returned to the state of absolute, unconditioned being, leaving no trace of its material form and identity.
Vaikunth: Lord Vithoba’s abode.
Wari: Circular pilgrimage to Pandharpur. It is usually from his/her home, in a Maharashtrian village to the Vithoba temple in Pandharpur and back. The shudh Ekadashi (the eleventh day of the bright/waxing moon) in the Hindu calendar months of Aashad (fourth month of the Hindu lunar calendar) and Kartik (eighth month of the Hindu lunar calendar) are the days of Vithoba's festival in Pandharpur, attended by pilgrims from all over Maharashtra.
Warkari: A person who makes the wari (circular pilgrimage). The Varkari follows a number of specific principles and practices, including:
1.Worship of Lord Vithoba.
2.A duty-based approach towards life.
3.Moral behavior and strict avoidance of alcohol and tobacco.
4.Strictly vegetarian diet.
5.Brahmacharya (self-restraint) during student life.
6.Rejecting discrimination based on caste or wealth.